Volume 3, Issue 1, 2019

Published Online: August 2019

Article 1 | Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the Filipino version of Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score among community-dwellers with knee osteoarthritis

Donald Manlapaz, Catherine Joy Escuadra, John Kenneth Ceazar Averia, Andrea Blancaflor, Rachel Ann Enriquez, Angela Mariz Ladeza, Angelica Marie Mandario, Jose Javier Mendoza, Thad Nuel Natividad

Objective: This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the Filipino Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (F-KOOS) among community-dwellers with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study also examined the suitability of the F-KOOS in terms of relevance and ease of understanding. Methods: This psychometric study utilized a cross-sectional design. Participants (>50 years old) with knee pain and soreness were recruited from the community and were medically diagnosed with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Participants were instructed to report for two sessions approximately two weeks apart. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the characteristics of participants and suitability in answering F-KOOS. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were determined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cronbach alpha, respectively. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing those with and without knee OA using independent t-test (p<0.05) per F-KOOS subscale. Results and Discussion: A total of 53 participants (35 females, 18 males) with a mean age of 69.67+5.83 years old were included in the study. The domains of the KOOS in the pre-test and re-test range from 0.30 to 0.78 (p<0.05), indicating good test-retest reliability between two assessment points. All domains of the F-KOOS had high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha of > 0.7) ranging from 0.87 to 0.96. Discriminant validity of all domains of F-KOOS between participants diagnosed with and without knee OA showed p-values <0.01 which indicate a significant difference between both groups. In terms of preference, out of 40 participants who answered the survey, 55-85% expressed ease and satisfaction in answering F-KOOS. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the F-KOOS has an acceptable test-retest reliability, good internal consistency, and discriminant validity in individuals with knee OA. The study further determined that the use of the F-KOOS is appropriate, relevant, and easy to understand in the community setting.

Article 2 | The state of the journal

Ivan Neil Gomez, Editor-in-Chief


“With a renewed fervor in advocating for publishing scholarly articles in the field of allied health sciences, PJAHS re-opens its door, or should I say, inbox, to submission from authors in the fields of physical therapy, occupational therapy, sports science, speech-language pathology, nursing, psychology, biomedical engineering, pharmacy, nutrition, education and other allied health sciences. In this edition of PJAHS, we publish articles in research fields of geriatric and musculoskeletal physical therapy, nutrition, caregiving stress and occupational therapy, interprofessional education, health research ethics, and health innovations through collaborations.

PJAHS envisions the future as hall-full, adopting an optimistic perspective of things to come. I invite our readers to continuously develop and make history with us. PJAHS is back, and we are here to stay.” (An excerpt from the editorial piece)

Article 3 | In gratitude for the PJAHS 2019 editorial board and reviewers

Ivan Neil Gomez, Anne Marie Aseron

Special Research Article

The Philippine Journal of Allied Health Sciences (PJAHS) and our publisher, the College of Rehabilitation Sciences of the University of Santo Tomas, extends our deepest gratitude to our editorial board and academic editors who have graciously contributed to the journal’s peer-review process for the years 2018-2019. We recognize your selfless contribution in support of our aim to further research in the field of allied health science through the democratization of knowledge evidence by way of Open Access journals such as PJAHS. We are back and here to stay because of your unwavering support and dedication.

The names of the individual editorial board members, staff and academic editors who performed excellent peer-review on the submitted manuscripts, some of which appear in this edition, appear in the supplementary File S1_PJAHS_List. Your participation in the review process is duly recognized and appreciated. Thank you for embarking with us in this journey of informing and influencing allied health science clinical and research practice. We hope that our partnership continues to flourish and prosper in the coming editions of PJAHS. Maraming Salamat po!

Article 4 | Challenges of research ethics committees

Anna Lea Enriquez

Letter to the Editor

Article 5 | Association of lateral epicondylalgia and shoulder rotatory motion: a cross-sectional case control study

Lyle Patrick Tangcuangco, Valentin Dones

Background: Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a cumulative strain injury affecting the common extensor origin of the elbow, manifesting as lateral elbow pain. Tightness of the fascia connecting the lateral elbow area with the shoulder area was assumed as potential source of LE. Limitation in shoulder rotatory motions may be associated with painful LE elbows. Aim: To determine the difference on shoulder rotatory motions between sides of symptomatic and asymptomatic elbows. Methods: Eligible participants had at least one elbow that tested positive for Cozen, Mill, or Maudsley’s test. Using a universal goniometer, a blinded assessor measured the participants’ active and followed by passive shoulder internal and external rotation. The primary investigator tested the external rotation followed by internal rotation of the right upper extremity, then subsequently the left upper extremity of healthy participants both passively and actively. Results: The assessor showed excellent intra-tester reliability in measuring active and passive shoulder rotatory motions of 20 asymptomatic right upper extremities (ICC=0.98). Twenty-seven (27) participants (3 males, 24 females) with a mean (95%CI) age of 54 (49-58) years old were enrolled in the study. The mean visual analogue scale of the patients was 6.53 (5.91-7.13), with mean (95%CI) duration of 96 (50-142) weeks. Based on hand dominance and side of LE, significant difference was found in active and passive shoulder internal rotation (p>0.05). Conclusion: Shoulder active and passive internal rotations were significantly associated with hand dominance in patients with LE. Tightness of the fascia and muscle in the shoulder and painful LE elbow may underpin the decreased shoulder rotatory motions.

Keywords: lateral epicondylalgia, tennis elbow, shoulder, fascia

Article 6 | The Filipino dietary habits and nutrition knowledge questionnaire (DHNKQ-FIL): a psychometric study

Karen Leslie Pineda, Alessandro Cardenas, Ronell Angelo Esteban, Stephanie Claire Pagarigan, Rayesha Azzedine Ma. Quilala, Johnmer Paul Se, Niccol Servañez

Background: The Dietary Habits and Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (DHNKQ) is a validated assessment tool that provides information about the nutritional practices of collegiate athletes as an integral support to sports performance. This psychometric study aims to translate and validate the DHNKQ for the Filipino collegiate population to come up with the DHNKQ-FIL using various psychometric protocols consolidated into two phases. Methods: The first phase involved the translation of the tool into Filipino and testing for face and content validity through a focus group discussion by an expert committee and was finalized with the administration of a pre-test to 30 collegiate athletes for final modification purposes. The second phase tested the validated DHNKQ-FIL on a new set of 30 collegiate athletes for internal consistency and reliability testing, statistically analyzed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Results: The DHNKQ-FIL used modern Filipino terminologies, more appropriate for the modern Filipino collegiate athlete. Item Content Validity Index (I-CVI) had scores of 90% and above in semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence for both sections. Food guides and choices, along with the usage of medical jargon, were identified areas for modification in the validity testing. Pre-test subjects considered the questionnaire appropriate and applicable for Filipino athletes after cognitive interview. The pilot test showed scale reliability scores of 0.68 or “Questionable” for dietary habits section and 0.81 or “Good” for nutritional knowledge. Test-retest reliability had a score of 0.79 or “Acceptable” for dietary habits and 0.60 or “Questionable” for nutrition knowledge. Conclusion: The acceptable scores for the translation, validation, and reliability of the DHNKQ-FIL makes it a valid tool for assessing dietary habit and nutritional knowledge among Filipino collegiate athletes.

Keywords: nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, translation, validation

Article 7 | The birth of a national network for interprofessional education and collaboration: results from an inter-university partnership

Michael Sy, Catherine Joy Escuadra, Reeva Ann Sumulong

The Philippine Interprofessional Education and Collaboration (PhIPEC) Conference is the first-ever national program held in the Philippines on interprofessional education and collaboration (IPEC). This project, initiated through an inter-university partnership between University of Santo Tomas and Angeles University Foundation, aimed to facilitate uniform understanding of IPEC across higher education institutions and health facilities as well as to instigate IPEC related researches in the country. The two-day conference was able to gather over 80 participants from more than 10 health and social care professions and 15 speakers who shared their expertise in health education and practice. Aside from these, the initiative has also gathered more than 500 followings in Facebook Page and 161 members in the mailing list. With the turn-out of this initiative, there was a move to rename the group into PhIPEC Network. The network has been agreed upon to serve as an informal entity that represents a collective of Filipino health and social care professionals towards advocating collaborative learning and health care services. Future directions were also determined focused on considering IPEC initiatives in education, practice, research, and policies.

Keywords: Interprofessional Education and Collaboration, IPE, IPC

Article 8 | Answering the health needs of the Filipino community

Consuelo Suarez

Letter to the Editor

Article 9 | Translation and cross- cultural adaptation of the Friedrich Short Form of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS-F) to measure the stress level of Filipino parents and other caregivers of children with disability

Paulin Grace Morato-Espino, Kim Gerald Medallon, Rigel Benzon, Mark Timothy Arroz, Carlo Angelino Buencamino, Cecilia Anne Ibay, Marie Selene Ko, Ivan Neil Gomez

Background: The Friedrich Short Form of the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS-F) is a tool that measures stress levels of parents of children with disabilities. Objectives: The objectives of this study are 1) To translate and culturally adapt the QRS-F for use by Filipino parents and other caregivers of children with disability in the Philippines, and 2) To establish its psychometric properties. Methods: The tool underwent the process of translation & cross-cultural adaptation with the following steps: 1) face & content validation, 2) translation and equivalence and 3) pilot study of the pre-final QRS-F. Convenience sampling was performed to select sixty Filipino parents and other caregivers of children with disability enrolled in special education schools and thirty Filipino parents and other caregivers of typically developing children enrolled in regular schools, all located in Metro Manila. Results: A translated, and culturally adapted QRS-F was developed and was found to have good reliability and construct (known group) validity. Conclusion: The QRS-F is a culturally valid tool that can be used to measure the stress levels of Filipino parents and other caregivers of children with disability.

Key Words: questionnaire, stress, parents, children, disability

Article 10 | Translation and validation of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly in Filipino community-dwelling older adult fallers and non-fallers

Donald Lipardo, Eudinel Joshua Lopez, Sharmaine Santiago, Mariel Tubig, Gerard Joseph Enriquez, Carmela Grace Canares, Marc Pagaduan, Kristina Devora

Background: Increased falls rate in older adults may be due to a declining level of physical activity. However, there is currently no local assessment tool to assess the physical activity of older adults in the Philippines. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to: (1) translate the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in Filipino (PASE-F); (2) establish the validity and equivalency of PASE-F version; and (3) determine the association between physical activity level and fall history in older adults living in the community. Methods: Standard translation procedure was followed. Qualitative analysis and appropriate revisions were done based on the comments of three health professionals in geriatric care. Equivalency was analyzed using two-sample t-test with equal variances, and Spearman Rho. The association of physical activity with fall history was established using simple logistic regression. Results: 310 (62.3% females) community-dwelling older adults, with mean age 68 ±6.5, from Manila, Philippines participated. The validated PASE-F and the original PASE were equivalent with a p-value of 0.84, and Spearman’s Rho of >0.05. No significant association was found between PASE-F scores and fall history, p-value = 0.16, 95% CI [1, 1.004]. Fallers show non-significantly higher PASE-F scores compared to non-fallers. Conclusion: PASE-F is a valid and equivalent translation of the original PASE. However, obtained PASE-F scores did not show association with a history of falls. Prospective studies may be done to determine the predictive value of PASE-F scores in the incidence of falls.

Keywords: physical activity, older adults, fall history

The Philippine Journal of Allied health Sciences [ISSN: 1908-5044] is an Open Access, peer reviewed journal published by the University of Santo Tomas-College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Manila, Philippines.



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