Volume 5, Issue 1, 2021

Published Online: August 2021

Article 1 | Preface

Preface to PJAHS Volume 5 Issue 1

Article 2 | The State of the Journal 2021

Ivan Neil Gomez


Article 3 | Improving Balance Control in Older Persons Through Martial Arts: a Scoping Review Protocol

Donald Lipardo, Donald Manlapaz, Vergel Orpilla, Jocel Regino, Stephanie Claire Pagarigan

Background: Neck pain is considered the fourth leading cause of disability, with an annual prevalence rate of 15 to 30%. Using evidence-based practice in neck pain examination is a vital part of the rehabilitation process as it serves as a basis for determining the best treatment. The objective of the study is to determine the usage of recommended examination tool for neck pain among the physical therapists in selected hospitals and clinics in Metro Manila. Methods: The study has three distinct phases wherein phase 1 was the development and validation of a data extraction sheet, phase 2 was the assessment of interrater reliability among the investigators who will perform the chart review, and phase 3 was the chart review process. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In phase 1, the contents of the data extraction sheet were found to be valid. In phase 2, the inter-rater reliability was 96.7% percent. In phase 3, the visual analogue scale was the most commonly used examination tool, yielding a 54% usage. This was followed by cervical range of motion & cervical manual muscle testing (22%), palpation (15%), sensory testing (7%), postural assessment (6%), special test (4%), ocular inspection (2%), functional assessment (1%), Functional Index Measure (1%) and functional muscle testing (1%). Neck Disability Index, which was one of the literature-recommended examination tools, was not used. Conclusion: Visual analogue scale was the most commonly used examination tool in conditions with neck pain in selected hospitals and clinics in Metro Manila. Further investigation can be done in order to know the reasons for the use or nonuse of examination tools.

Article 4 | Infusing Standard Precautions for Infection Control in Occupational Therapy Telehealth With Children

Ivan Neil Gomez, Jose Ma. Rafael Ramos

Background: Biceps tenodesis is a technique frequently performed in shoulder surgeries. Various techniques have been described, but there is no consensus on which technique restores the length-tension relationship. Restoration of the physiologic length-tension relationship has been correlated to better functional outcomes, such as decreased incidence of residual pain or weakness of the biceps. The objective of this study was to measure the anatomic relationship of the origin of the biceps tendon with its zones in the upper extremity. This would provide an anatomic guide or an acceptable placement of the tenodesis to reestablish good biceps tension during surgery. Methods: The study used nine adult cadavers (five males, four females) from the [withheld for blinded review]. Nine shoulder specimens were dissected and markers were placed at five points along each biceps tendon: (1) Labral origin (LO) (2) Superior bicipital groove (SBG) (3) Superior border of the pectoralis tendon (SBPMT) (4) Musculotendinous junction (MTJ) and (5) Inferior border of the pectoralis tendon (IBPMT). Using the origin of the tendon as the initial point of reference, measurements were made to the four subsequent sites. The humeral length was recorded by measuring the distance between the greater tuberosity and the lateral epicondyle as well as the tendon diameter at the articular surface. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent across all measures. A total of nine cadavers were included. Mean age of patients was 66.33 years old, ranging from 52-82 years old. These were composed of five male and four female cadavers. The mean tendon length was 24.83mm ± 4.32 from the origin to the superior border of the bicipital groove, 73.50mm ± 6.96 to the Superior Border Pectoralis Major Tendon, 100.89mm ± 6.88 to the Musculotendinous Junction, and 111.11mm ± 7.45 to the Inferior Border Pectoralis Major Tendon. The mean tendon diameter at the articular origin was 6.44mm ± 1.76. Conclusion: This study provided measurement guidelines that could restore the natural length-tension relationship during biceps tenodesis using the interference screw technique in Filipinos. A simple method of restoring a normal length-tension relationship is by doing tenodesis close to the articular origin and creating a bone socket of approximately 25mm in depth, using the superior border of the bicipital groove as a landmark.

Article 5 | Psychometric Properties of the Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist- Tagalog Version

Ivan Neil Gomez, Francheska Alecks Arel, Joan Melissa Asidao, John Dominic Baguio, Lareine Nava, Daniella Antonia Rivera, Alyssa Bruno Tolentino, Cynthia YY Lai

Background: The Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC) is a parent or caregiver-reported instrument that measures a child’s self-regulation and sensory processing ability as they perform daily activities. The original version in Chinese and a more recent English version has reported favorable reliability and validity. While the SPSRC has undergone translation into a Tagalog version, its psychometric properties are unknown. Objectives: This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the SPSRC-Tagalog. Methods: Reliability and validity properties were tested among a sample of Filipino children with (n= 45) and without disability (n= 45), based on the reports of the parents or caregivers on the SPSRC-Tagalog. Results: This study found that the SPSRC-Tagalog has good internal consistency, excellent test-retest reliability, and good cross-cultural, discriminant, structural, construct, and criterion validity. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the SPSRC-Tagalog corroborate with its other language versions in its reliability and validity to measure the sensory processing and self-regulation abilities in Filipino children with and without a disability. The information obtained from the SPSR-Tagalog may be useful in informing our understanding of sensory processing difficulties among children.

Article 6 | Translation to Filipino and Validation of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) Questionnaire for Patellar Tendinopathy

Ken Erbvin Sosa, Paul Daniel Ravarra, Mark Angel Serra, Ma. Katrinna Michaela Delfin, Neil Christian Lapiz, Young Hee Lee, Paolo Luis Perez, Eric Benjamin Reyes, Andre Patrick Rosales, Samantha Kimberly Velasquez

Background: Patellar tendinopathy is an overuse injury characterized by pain on the distal part of the patella caused by specific movement patterns like jumping. To assess the severity of patellar tendinopathy, the self-administered VISA-P questionnaire was developed in the English language. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the VISA-P questionnaire into Filipino and determine its psychometric properties. Methods: A psychometric study design was used in this study. The VISA-P was translated from English to Filipino following the guidelines set by Beaton et al. and Sousa et al. There were six stages: (1) forward translation to Filipino, (2) synthesis, (3) backward translation, (4) expert committee review, (5) pilot testing/cognitive briefing, and (6) preliminary psychometric testing. The psychometric testing was conducted on eight patients with patellar tendinopathy and eight healthy subjects. Results: The Filipino VISA-P questionnaire (VISA-P-Fil) successfully underwent translation and cross-cultural adaptation. It exhibited excellent face, content validity (Item-Content Validity index and Scale-Content Validity Index= 1.00), construct validity (p>0.05, except for Item 6), internal consistency (Cronbach α= 0.81) as well as reliability (ICC= 0.99; 95% CI: 0.994 – 0.999; SEM= 0.42; minimum detectable change at 95% confidence level= 1.79). No ceiling and floor effects were noted for the VISA-P-Fil. Conclusion: In conclusion, the VISA-P-Fil questionnaire was translated and cross-culturally adapted successfully with good validity. Preliminary testing also showed its excellent reliability.

Article 7 | Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Measurement of Psychometric Properties of the Filipino version of Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Ankle Instability (VISA-A) Questionnaire for Achilles Tendinopathy

Ken Erbvin Sosa, Paul Daniel Ravarra, Isaias Khaim Apostol, Theodore Austin Biason, Jan Gabriel Bulaong, Gail Maxine Carbajal, Ciro Augusto Galang, Melchizedek Samonte, Audrey Yee

Background: Achilles Tendinopathy (AT) is common in elite and recreational athletes involved in sports such as running and jumping. The severity of this condition can be assessed using the VISA-A questionnaire. However, this is originally developed in English. This has been translated to several languages, but there is no translation and cross-cultural adaptation yet to Filipino. This study aims to translate, cross-culturally adapt the VISA-A questionnaire to Filipino, and examine its psychometric properties. Method: The translation and validation process were in accordance with the guidelines set by Beaton et al., and Sousa et al. The psychometric properties were assessed on n= 8 healthy and n= 8 symptomatic athletes. Results.: The VISA-A questionnaire exhibited excellent face validity (100% agreement), content validity (Item-Content Validity Index and Scale-Content Validity Index= 1.00), construct validity (U= 2.50, p= 0.001), and concurrent validity (r= 0.90, p= 0.001). The items have good internal consistency (α= 0.80) and showed excellent reliability (ICC= 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73–0.99). Conclusion: The cross-cultural adaptation of the Filipino version of VISA-A (VISA-A-Fil) was successful. Preliminary psychometric testing showed that the VISA-A-Fil questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that measures the severity of AT. However, there is still a need to explore its full psychometric properties.

Article 8 | Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Filipino Worker Role Interview

Kim Gerald Medallon, Justine Anne Gurtiza, Jaira Mitra, John Alexander David Tuazon, Nicole Beniza Dayao, Hannah Nicole De Mesa, Alysson Kyle Obregon, Rosa Katrina Santos

Background: The Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool that looks at factors impacting return to work capabilities and the client’s capacity to return to work. The WRI is developed and originally written by Braveman et al. Objective: The objective of the study is to provide a Filipino translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the WRI, as well as establish its face, content, and convergent validity and inter-rater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability. Methods: Expert panels were utilized in the two phases of the study. Phase 1 involves forward translation, synthesis of the translations, backward translation, expert panel review, and pilot testing involving 31 participants. Phase 2 involves retranslation, expert panel review, and administration of the Filipino WRI to 85 participants. Results: Certain items were subjected for retranslation to adequately represent the domain of content addressed by the tool to ensure cultural equivalence. The tool has good inter-rater (ICC = 0.75-0.90), test-retest (rs(85) = 0.72-0.91, p<0.001), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.96) reliability. Convergent validity with the Worker Role Self-Assessment yielded a weak correlation (rs(85)=0.42 – -0.04, p<0.001) due to possible differences in language used and manner of administration. Conclusion: At this level, the WRI has good validity and reliability properties which can assess the ability of Filipino early adults with disability to return to work.

Article 9 | Functional Mobility Problems and Cognitive Decline in Institution-Based Older Adults In Leyte: A Correlational Study

Gwynth Kaye Villacorte Sudario, Donald Lipardo

Background: With the increase of life expectancy, the number of nursing homes accommodating institution-based older adults has also increased. It is important to determine the link between functional decline and cognition among elderlies to assist health care professionals in providing the necessary care to ameliorate the living conditions of elderlies in home institutions. Methods: This descriptive observational study with correlational design recruited 30 institution-based older adults from three nursing homes in Leyte, Philippines. The researchers used Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Timed-Up, and Go Test (TUG) and 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) to assess the functionality of the participants and Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation to determine the association between functional mobility and cognitive function. Simple linear regression analysis was employed to determine the level of significance of functional mobility and cognitive function while multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of adjusted covariates. Statistical significance was set at (p˂0.05). Results: The prevalence of probable cognitive impairment was 90%, which was predominant in ≥ 70 years old and male (91.6%). The common functional problems were impairment in dynamic balance and mobility at 70% and gait speed at 73.3%. The result showed significant correlation between the cognition and functional mobility. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in nursing homes. Institution-based older adults showed impaired dynamic balance and slow speed. Significant correlation between functional mobility problems and cognitive decline in institution-based older persons was established.

Article 10 | Association between Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain, Physical Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life: A Survey of Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria

Aliyu Lawan, Adedapo Wasiu Awotidebe, Umar Muhammad Bello, Adamu Ahmad Rufa’i, Cornelius Mahdi Ishaku, Mamman Ali Masta, Akindele Mukadas

Background: Pregnancy-related low back pain is a common complaint with numerous adverse consequences. Unfortunately, the effect of health-related quality of life and physical activity status on pregnancy-related low back pain remains understudied. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the influence of physical activity and health-related quality of life on pregnancy-related low back pain among pregnant women. Methods: A survey of 398 pregnant women was conducted using the Modified Pregnancy Low Back Pain, Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (MOS-SF), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to assess pregnancy-related low back pain, quality of life, and physical activity status among the participants. Results: About fifty-four percent (54%) of the pregnant women reported experiencing low back pain during pregnancy. There were no significant differences between most physical activity intensities and domains for pregnant women with and without pregnancy-related low back pain, with the exception of women identified as sedentary (12.9±14.8 versus 17.4±16.2) or inactive (18.7±20.0 versus 23.6±19.8). Furthermore, waist circumference (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.99) and Physical component scores (PCS) (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.98) were associated with pregnancy-related low back pain. An interaction of height and occupation also showed an association with pregnancy related low back pain (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.08). Conclusions: Sedentary and inactivity are the only physical activity intensity and domain associated with pregnancy-related low back pain, which affect the physical well-being of the expecting mothers.

Article 11 | Dietary Habits and Nutritional Knowledge of Selected Philippine National Combat Athletes: a Cross-Sectional Study

Karen Leslie Lee-Pineda, Stephanie Claire Pagarigan, Raymund Peter Capucao, Francis Gabriel Cruz, Rikki Louise Obispo, Aron Anthony Romey, Maria Remedios Hermancita Regina Sotelo, Nathan Michael Vasquez

Objectives: The study aims to assess the dietary habits and nutritional knowledge of selected Philippine national combat sports athletes and determine the correlation of demographics and sources of nutrition information with participants’ dietary habits and nutrition knowledge. Methods: This cross-sectional study included assessing boxing and taekwondo Philippine national athletes using the Dietary Habits and Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire: Filipino Version. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics between sports comparison and exploratory correlation and regression analyses. Alpha was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 44 participants aged 21+ 3.4 years were able to participate in the study. Responses revealed that 69.44% have fair dietary habits and 73.54% have good nutritional knowledge. Results indicated no significant difference between the two sports in dietary habits and nutritional knowledge (p>0.05). Further analyses revealed that years in playing (r= 0.32, p= 0.04), and sources of nutrition information, precisely strength and conditioning coach (r= 0.36, p= 0.02), and peers (r= 0.39, p= 0.01) have a significant correlation with good dietary habit and nutritional knowledge, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, Filipino national athletes of boxing and taekwondo have fair dietary habits and sound nutritional knowledge. Furthermore, nutritional knowledge sources are possible relevant factors that may affect the dietary habits and nutritional knowledge of combat sports athletes.

Article 12 | Why Do Graphic Health Warnings Fail: An Explanatory Case Study on the Persistence of Smoking Behavior among Male Adult Smokers in a Rural and Low-Income Setting in the Philippines

John Rafael Arda, Ashley Gabrielle Jeanjaquet, Navin John Pasia, John Dominic Mari Rafael, Danyz Samantha Rita, Kaye Bernice Siao, Jecelyn Grace Yparraguirre, Genejane AdarloJohn Rafael Arda, Ashley Rafael Jeanjaquet, Navin John Pasia, John Dominic Mari Rafael, Danzy Samantha Rita, Kaye Bernice Siao, Jecelyn Grace Yparraguirre, Genejane Adarlo

Background: The Philippines enacted in 2014 Republic Act No. 10643 that mandated the printing of Graphic Health Warnings on tobacco packages. However, smoking behavior among male smokers in the country, particularly in rural and low-income areas, persists even if the Graphic Health Warnings are according to the guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Hence, this explanatory case study aims to examine why and how most male adult smokers in a rural and low-income setting in the Philippines fail to quit smoking despite the presence of Graphic Health Warnings on tobacco packages. Methods: Forty-four male adult smokers from Barangay Urdaneta in Magallanes, Cavite, were recruited to participate in this study through snowball sampling. They underwent semi-structured interviews about their history of smoking, experiences as a smoker, and perspectives on Graphic Health Warnings. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts was then carried out to identify emerging themes. Results: Findings showed Graphic Health Warnings fail to persuade against smoking because fear was not aroused enough for smoking cessation. Specifically, the perception of risk from smoking was low due to lack of literacy on its harmful effects, and self-efficacy needed for smoking cessation was low because of self-doubt and denial. Other factors, such as the subjective and social benefits of smoking, were likewise contributory to the persistence of smoking behavior. Conclusion: All these concerns must be considered for an effective campaign against tobacco use and consumption since Graphic Health Warnings on tobacco packages is only one strategy to address the burden of tobacco smoking.

Article 13 | In gratitude for the PJAHS 2021 editorial board and reviewers

Ivan Neil Gomez, Anne Marie Aseron

Special Research Article

The Philippine Journal of Allied health Sciences [ISSN: 1908-5044] is an Open Access, peer reviewed journal published by the University of Santo Tomas-College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Manila, Philippines.



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