Article 1Preface

    Preface to PJAHS Volume 5 Issue 1

    Article 2The State of the Journal 2021
    Ivan Neil Gomez


    Article 3Improving Balance Control in Older Persons Through Martial Arts: a Scoping Review Protocol
    Donald Lipardo, Donald Manlapaz, Vergel Orpilla, Jocel Regino, Stephanie Claire Pagarigan

    Introduction: Martial arts, other than Tai chi, are now being integrated into exercise programs to improve the balance control of older adults. This scoping review aims to describe the extent, range, and nature of available literature on martial arts use to improve balance control in older adults. Methods and Analysis: This scoping review will adhere to the steps described in the Arksey and O’Malley framework. Studies on martial arts use, aside from Tai chi, in improving balance in older adults are eligible. Only experimental studies written in English will be included. Literature search on published articles from inception to February 2021 will be conducted in ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, and ProQuest. Grey literature search will be implemented in Google Scholar, Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses Open, University of Santo Tomas Library. Hand-searching for additional articles from reference lists of included studies will also be performed. Data on author and year of publication, country, study design, target population, type of martial art, exercise protocol, balance outcome measures used, and main findings will be extracted from the included studies. Ethics and Dissemination: This protocol describes the rigorous process that will be implemented to map the breadth of existing literature on martial arts use in improving the balance control of older adults. Ethical approval is not required because only information from publicly accessible sources will be collected. Review findings will be disseminated through publications and presentations in local and international conferences and shared with relevant agencies and societies. Scoping review registration: This protocol was registered in Open Science Framework (OSF):

    Article 4Infusing Standard Precautions for Infection Control in Occupational Therapy Telehealth With Children
    Ivan Neil Gomez, Jose Ma. Rafael Ramos

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a profound effect on the health and well-being of individuals worldwide. In the Philippines, the withstanding quarantine protocols have affected the occupational therapy practice, which has adopted a telehealth strategy. Filipino occupational therapists (OTs) working with children have to infuse concepts of standard precautions of infection control to prevent infection and transmission in their virtual sessions. This innovative practice has been delivered through telehealth services. This case report highlights the importance of family collaboration, activity analysis, evidence utilization, and infusing standard precautions in children’s daily occupations. OTs should consider these “new approaches” in the “new normal” and beyond.


    Article 5Psychometric Properties of the Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist- Tagalog Version
    Ivan Neil Gomez, Francheska Alecks Arel, Joan Melissa Asidao, John Dominic Baguio, Lareine Nava, Daniella Antonia Rivera, Alyssa Bruno Tolentino, Cynthia YY Lai

    Background: The Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC) is a parent or caregiver-reported instrument that measures a child’s self-regulation and sensory processing ability as they perform daily activities. The original version in Chinese and a more recent English version has reported favorable reliability and validity. While the SPSRC has undergone translation into a Tagalog version, its psychometric properties are unknown. Objectives: This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the SPSRC-Tagalog. Methods: Reliability and validity properties were tested among a sample of Filipino children with (n= 45) and without disability (n= 45), based on the reports of the parents or caregivers on the SPSRC-Tagalog. Results: This study found that the SPSRC-Tagalog has good internal consistency, excellent test-retest reliability, and good cross-cultural, discriminant, structural, construct, and criterion validity. Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the SPSRC-Tagalog corroborate with its other language versions in its reliability and validity to measure the sensory processing and self-regulation abilities in Filipino children with and without a disability. The information obtained from the SPSR-Tagalog may be useful in informing our understanding of sensory processing difficulties among children.

    Article 6Translation to Filipino and Validation of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) Questionnaire for Patellar Tendinopathy
    Ken Erbvin Sosa, Paul Daniel Ravarra, Mark Angel Serra, Ma. Katrinna Michaela Delfin, Neil Christian Lapiz, Young Hee Lee, Paolo Luis Perez, Eric Benjamin Reyes, Andre Patrick Rosales, Samantha Kimberly Velasquez

    Background: Patellar tendinopathy is an overuse injury characterized by pain on the distal part of the patella caused by specific movement patterns like jumping. To assess the severity of patellar tendinopathy, the self-administered VISA-P questionnaire was developed in the English language. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the VISA-P questionnaire into Filipino and determine its psychometric properties. Methods: A psychometric study design was used in this study. The VISA-P was translated from English to Filipino following the guidelines set by Beaton et al. and Sousa et al. There were six stages: (1) forward translation to Filipino, (2) synthesis, (3) backward translation, (4) expert committee review, (5) pilot testing/cognitive briefing, and (6) preliminary psychometric testing. The psychometric testing was conducted on eight patients with patellar tendinopathy and eight healthy subjects. Results: The Filipino VISA-P questionnaire (VISA-P-Fil) successfully underwent translation and cross-cultural adaptation. It exhibited excellent face, content validity (Item-Content Validity index and Scale-Content Validity Index= 1.00), construct validity (p>0.05, except for Item 6), internal consistency (Cronbach α= 0.81) as well as reliability (ICC= 0.99; 95% CI: 0.994 – 0.999; SEM= 0.42; minimum detectable change at 95% confidence level= 1.79). No ceiling and floor effects were noted for the VISA-P-Fil. Conclusion: In conclusion, the VISA-P-Fil questionnaire was translated and cross-culturally adapted successfully with good validity. Preliminary testing also showed its excellent reliability.

    Article 7Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Measurement of Psychometric Properties of the Filipino version of Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Ankle Instability (VISA-A) Questionnaire for Achilles Tendinopathy
    Ken Erbvin Sosa, Paul Daniel Ravarra, Isaias Khaim Apostol, Theodore Austin Biason, Jan Gabriel Bulaong, Gail Maxine Carbajal, Ciro Augusto Galang, Melchizedek Samonte, Audrey Yee

    Background: Achilles Tendinopathy (AT) is common in elite and recreational athletes involved in sports such as running and jumping. The severity of this condition can be assessed using the VISA-A questionnaire. However, this is originally developed in English. This has been translated to several languages, but there is no translation and cross-cultural adaptation yet to Filipino. This study aims to translate, cross-culturally adapt the VISA-A questionnaire to Filipino, and examine its psychometric properties. Method: The translation and validation process were in accordance with the guidelines set by Beaton et al., and Sousa et al. The psychometric properties were assessed on n= 8 healthy and n= 8 symptomatic athletes. Results.: The VISA-A questionnaire exhibited excellent face validity (100% agreement), content validity (Item-Content Validity Index and Scale-Content Validity Index= 1.00), construct validity (U= 2.50, p= 0.001), and concurrent validity (r= 0.90, p= 0.001). The items have good internal consistency (α= 0.80) and showed excellent reliability (ICC= 0.94; 95% CI: 0.73–0.99). Conclusion: The cross-cultural adaptation of the Filipino version of VISA-A (VISA-A-Fil) was successful. Preliminary psychometric testing showed that the VISA-A-Fil questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that measures the severity of AT. However, there is still a need to explore its full psychometric properties.

    Article 8Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Filipino Worker Role Interview
    Kim Gerald Medallon, Justine Anne Gurtiza, Jaira Mitra, John Alexander David Tuazon, Nicole Beniza Dayao, Hannah Nicole De Mesa, Alysson Kyle Obregon, Rosa Katrina Santos

    Background: The Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool that looks at factors impacting return to work capabilities and the client’s capacity to return to work. The WRI is developed and originally written by Braveman et al. Objective: The objective of the study is to provide a Filipino translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the WRI, as well as establish its face, content, and convergent validity and inter-rater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability. Methods: Expert panels were utilized in the two phases of the study. Phase 1 involves forward translation, synthesis of the translations, backward translation, expert panel review, and pilot testing involving 31 participants. Phase 2 involves retranslation, expert panel review, and administration of the Filipino WRI to 85 participants. Results: Certain items were subjected for retranslation to adequately represent the domain of content addressed by the tool to ensure cultural equivalence. The tool has good inter-rater (ICC = 0.75-0.90), test-retest (rs(85) = 0.72-0.91, p<0.001), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= 0.96) reliability. Convergent validity with the Worker Role Self-Assessment yielded a weak correlation (rs(85)=0.42 – -0.04, p<0.001) due to possible differences in language used and manner of administration. Conclusion: At this level, the WRI has good validity and reliability properties which can assess the ability of Filipino early adults with disability to return to work.

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