Current Articles

PJAHS- the Philippine Journal of Allied Health Sciences is a peer-reviewed Open Access journal publishing original research, systematic reviews and meta-synthesis, short reports, and letters to the editor.




Ivan Neil Gomez

Using Generative AI in Research​

Article 1 | The Professional Landscape of Occupational Therapy in the Philippine Mental Health System​

Ma. Patricia Nicole Roraldo, Camille Anne Guevara, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes, Nuruh-Raina Aluk​

Article 2 | Biomechanical Parameters Assessed During Running Among Running-Related Athletes with Recurrent Hamstring Strain Injury: A Scoping Review

Reil Vinard Espino, Consuelo Suarez, Lewis Ingram, Donald Manlapaz, Kris Anthony Agarao​

Background: Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is the most common cause of missing practices and sporting events among running-related athletes. The incidence rate of recurrence in individuals with HSI ranges from 12% to 63%. While various risk factors for HSI have been identified, the alterations and role of biomechanical factors as potential causes of injury have been largely overlooked. Objectives: To report the critical biomechanical parameters assessed among running-related athletes with a recurrent HSI and to present common testing protocols in assessing the biomechanical parameters among running-related athletes with a recurrent HSI. Methods: Eligibility Criteria: Included studies investigated biomechanical parameters assessed among collegiate or elite running-related athletes with recurrent HSI. Sources of Evidence: This scoping review was registered in OSF and was conducted based on PRISMA-ScR. Six electronic databases were systematically searched from 1993 to May 2022. Charting Methods: The reviewers created a data charting tool for the scoping review. Results: Out of 874 articles, a total of 10 articles were included in the scoping review. The critical biomechanical parameters assessed include trunk flexion, hip flexion, and knee extension angles (kinematic variables), flight and stance times and velocity (spatiotemporal variables), and EMG activity of biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris, knee flexion and extension angle peak joint torque (kinetic variables). The most common running test protocols used were the 30-meter overground repeated sprint test, a percentage of maximum running velocity (treadmill), and repeated sprints on a non-motorized treadmill. The most common protocols for isokinetic muscle testing were 60 degrees (concentric), 300 degrees (concentric), and 180 degrees (eccentric) per second angular velocities. Conclusion: The review demonstrated a need for more research on this topic, leading to only limited biomechanical parameters being discussed in the literature. This underscores the need for more rigorous research that could have practical applications for athletes and coaches.​

Article 3 | Adapting the Media Exposure Survey to Measure Parental Attitude and Screen Use of Filipino Children: A Psychometric Study ​

Paulin Grace Morato-Espino, Maria Patricia Josefina Berceno, Elijah Miguel Guiao, Elyssa Manuel, Dana Marie Salo, Catherine Anne Tan, Julie Franz Tanchuling​

Background: There are various attitudes regarding their child's screen usage. However, there are no existing Filipino-translated and culturally appropriate questionnaires or assessment tools that can measure a child's media exposure, screen use, and parental attitude. The Media Exposure Survey is an assessment tool that measures a child’s media exposure, screen use, and parental attitudes regarding their child’s screen usage. Objectives: The study aims to contextualize and translate the questionnaire into Filipino, determine its content validity and internal consistency, and check the translated questionnaire's compatibility and applicability. Methods: The study involves four steps: 1) content validity testing, 2) forward and backward translation and equivalence, 3) pilot testing of the pre-final version, and 4) reliability resting. Data analysis was done to evaluate the content validity and internal consistency of the questionnaire. Thirty-six parents of children aged 0-5 in Metro Manila pilot tested the tool. Results: A cross-culturally adapted version of the Media Exposure Survey has been produced with good content validity. The S-CVI of the questionnaire is 95%, which is excellent. The parental attitude towards childhood media use subscale has an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.77. Conclusion: The translated and adapted Media Exposure Survey has good content validity and acceptable internal consistency and can be used to assess Filipino children’s media exposure, screen use, and parental attitudes toward media use.​

Article 4 | A Retrospective Study of the Online Self-Regulated Learning Skills of Occupational Therapy Students Enrolled in a Full Online Curriculum at the University of Santo Tomas amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic

Paolo Pimentel, Nikka Karla Santos, Maielle Jen Capuli, Pamela Eloise Gonzaga, Erin Jenica Aquino, Jared Collado, Marion Lucero, Diane Stephanie Yap​

Background: The pandemic brought permanent changes in education in terms of set-up and delivery. In the Philippines, most universities switched to online learning to provide educational continuity to their students. Without direct supervision from instructors, higher educational level learners bear greater responsibility for their learning behaviors, emphasizing the need to employ online self-regulated learning (OSRL) skills, which are goal setting, environment structuring, time management, help-seeking, self-evaluation, and metacognition. Objectives: This study examined the OSRL skills of occupational therapy (OT) students enrolled in a full online curriculum at the University of Santo Tomas (UST) during the academic year (A.Y.) 2020-2021. It also describes the differences between students' OSRL skills and their demographic characteristics—sex, age, year level, and student status. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional records review of the 2021 Student Life Survey, which was deployed through Google Forms to a total of 205 respondents. Responses from the Online Self-Regulated Questionnaire were extracted and analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS version 27, using the Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test with a significance level set at 0.050. Results: Data analysis showed that UST OT students reported average to high levels of online self-regulated learning, with the highest SRL mean score in environmental structuring and goal setting. The students’ online self-regulated learning in goal setting is statistically significant to sex (p= 0.021) and age (p= 0.036). Additionally, year levels have a significant difference in task strategies (p= 0.042) and time management (p= 0.006). Conclusion: OSRL skills vary depending on the students’ contexts and learning environment. They are independent of the students’ demographic characteristics. These findings could inform stakeholders and researchers about students’ OSRL levels, which can help in providing pedagogical strategies that will enhance students' self-regulated learning in online education.​

Article 5 | Lived Experiences of UAAP Season 84 and NCAA Season 97 Student-Athletes in their Bubble Set-up Training during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Research Protocol​

Ken Erbvin Sosa, Charles Nicolei Nermal, Karlos Lorenzo Rea, Gabrielle Atasha Tanhueco, Isaac Miguel Andico, Janelle Audre Chiu, Timothy Lao, Ma. Julia Isabelle Peñaloza, John Mari Quilang, Zeuch Ryonin Silva​

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the sports industry, postponing events worldwide. To adapt to the situation, athletes have been forced to train at home. Bubble training was introduced to provide a safe and conducive training environment while adhering to government health protocols. However, concerns have emerged regarding the set-up’s implementation. Objective: The study aims to explore the lived experiences of UAAP Season 84 and NCAA Season 97 student-athletes who underwent bubble training. Methods: The study will employ a qualitative phenomenological approach based on Seligman's Well-Being Theory. A purposive sampling technique will be used to recruit at least seven eligible student-athletes. Data will be collected through on-site or online interviews using a semi-structured interview guide to reveal a narrative of the student-athletes' bubble training experiences, common themes, and patterns. Deductive thematic analysis approach will be used with the help of the NVivo software program. Expected Results: This study is expected to develop themes from the daily bubble training routines, habits, coping strategies, and perceived thoughts and feelings of Filipino collegiate student-athletes, regarding their emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement in bubble training. This may provide insights to the government, educational institutions, and athletic associations on possible comprehensive guidelines if they plan to implement bubble training when the need arises.​

Article 6 | Echo Intensity and Shear Wave Elastography in Athletes with Previous Hamstring Injury: A Systematic Review Protocol

Maria Belinda Cristina Fidel, Charidy Ramos, Helen Banwell, Consuelo Gonzalez-Suarez

Background: Hamstring strain injury remains persistently high in sports, highlighting the need for additional investigation of its predisposing variables. Despite hamstring injury being well investigated, there’s a lack of studies on changes in echo intensity and shear wave elastography of hamstrings among athletes with a history of injury, which could be considered modifiable risk variables. Objectives: To examine echo intensity and shear wave elastography characteristics of previously injured hamstrings among athletes, assessing the differences between the injured leg and controls. Methods: This systematic review will focus on studies reporting echo intensity and shear wave elastography characteristics of athletes with a history of hamstring strain injury compared to a control group. The search strategy will locate studies written in English from 1990 to 2023 using four electronic databases: PubMed, EBSCO (CINAHL and Medline), Science Direct, and Web of Science. Studies reporting measures using imaging other than ultrasound and where no diagnosis of hamstring strain has been made will be excluded. Two independent reviewers will screen and critically appraise the studies using the McMasters Critical Review Form. Two reviewers will independently extract relevant data and present a descriptive synthesis. A meta-analysis will be conducted when two or more studies provide data for the same outcome measure. Expected Results: This review can better understand hamstring maladaptation to injury. Utilizing echo-intensity and shear wave elastography as objective outcome measures can inform clinical practice toward developing an effective rehabilitation program for injury prevention.

Article 7 | Identifying the roles of occupational therapists among the LGBT community: An analysis of a panel discussion

Rod Charlie Delos Reyes, Mark Andrè Blanco, Roland Sardan

Occupational therapists are known to be holistic practitioners who facilitate occupational performance and promote occupational justice. However, limited literature explores the role of the profession for members of the society who identify themselves as lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender (LGBT). This paper analyzes a panel discussion at an international event hosted by a university in the Philippines regarding gender and sexuality. This short report aims to identify the roles of occupational therapists among the LGBT community through the lens of professionals. Upon thematic analysis of the transcription of the discussion, five roles of occupational therapists were identified. These are (1) navigators on the complexity of gender and sexuality, (2) researchers on evidenced-based and practical practices toward the LGBT community, (3) enablers of gender expression among the LGBT community, (4) allies of the LGBT community, and (5) advocates of inclusion in all spaces. It provides actionable approaches for occupational therapists to facilitate gender-affirming healthcare for the LGBT community. Moreover, these findings hold the potential to influence forthcoming policies and educational initiatives for both occupational therapists and allied professionals.

Article 8 | The 5P Stairs Model: A Guide to School Visits

Joseph Mary Balbuena, Mariko Sasai, Angelica Micah Yuzon, Abelardo Apollo David, Jr.

A school visit is defined as a process wherein a person with specific expertise and preparation goes to a school for a limited period of time and gathers information on how a student is functioning within that setting. Aside from giving thorough guidelines for conducting a school visit, the 5P Stairs Model presents five (5) steps that can establish a better working relationship among the stakeholders, motivated by one main goal: to support the child’s performance within the school setting. The model presents the 5P’s: a) Preparation, which focuses on the delivery of consent and request letters upon identifying the need for a visit; b) Pre-observation for the briefing, focusing on the collaboration between the therapist and the teacher on how the process could mutually benefit them and the child; c) Observation Proper which includes taking note of relevant observations using a checklist; d) Post-observation for debriefing is where feedback to the teacher takes place; and e) Planning and Partnership which includes providing recommendations and necessary interventions, through the continuous collaboration among the therapist, family, and school. Furthermore, supplemental materials such as template letters, a questionnaire, and an observation form were developed to facilitate the aforementioned steps. The framework’s processes and steps serve as a guide and are not meant to be prescriptive. A pilot study on the 5P Stairs Model’s processes and supplemental files is recommended to help establish its usefulness, validity, and effectiveness.

Article 9 | The Screen Time Ecological Model (STEM): The Development of a Conceptual and Practice Model on Screen Time for Children

Stepanie Ragasa, Kym Sambo, Camille Abigail Vivo, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes

It is undeniable that technology has become part of modern society that extends to children's grasp. However, the amount of screen time exposure in children and its effects are increasingly becoming a significant concern for families, educators, and child-related health professionals, such as occupational therapists. This study aims to help child-related health professionals understand the factors contributing to screen time and describe children's screen time levels to enable proper assessment and intervention planning. The Screen Time Ecological Model (STEM) follows the Socio- Ecological Model in describing influencing factors to screen time behavior, the Ecology of Human Performance in conceptualizing intervention approaches, and the Developmental Frame of Reference in describing the age-appropriate screen time recommendation children based on the American Academy of Pediatrics Media Use Guidelines for Families. The optimal goal of STEM is to promote the just-right screen time use within the pediatric population.

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The Philippine Journal of Allied health Sciences [ISSN: 1908-5044 (Print); 2984-9667 (Online] is an Open Access, peer reviewed journal published by the University of Santo Tomas-College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Manila, Philippines.


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